Thursday, January 22, 2009
5. SEFER KEDUSHA: THE BOOK OF HOLINESS
This book includes the mitsvot that pertain to forbidden sexual activities and prohibited foods. The sexual and appetitive drives are powerful forces in the human organism that have the potential to interfere with and even replace spiritual strivings, substituting the base enjoyments for closeness to Hashem, hijacking the energies that would otherwise be channeled by the values articulated in the Book of Knowledge. The mitsvot in this book teach us how to moderate and balance our physical and intellectual enjoyments in a healthy and fulfilling manner.
6. SEFER HAFLAAH: THE BOOK OF EXPRESSION
This book includes the mitsvot that pertain to vows and oaths. Certain individuals may chose to accept additional restrictions upon themselves because they feel – due to some deficiency in their character or make up - that the laws of the Torah are not sufficient for them to achieve holiness. Thus, like a student with special needs who receives individualized instructional support, these individuals need a personalized holiness plan. These individualized plans supplement the program of development that the Torah prescribes for the entire community.
7. SEFER ZERAIM: THE BOOK OF SEEDS
This book includes the mitsvot that pertain to land and agriculture, such as the prohibition of sowing diverse seeds, the laws of charity and gifts to the Kohanim, and the laws of Shemitta. Human society is situated within the natural environment and is ultimately a component of it. Though we dominate our environment to a certain extent, we are, at the same time, small parts of a Divinely created system. The prohibition of sowing diverse seeds reminds us of the scientific order of Nature that transcends all of our “meddling” with it, as does Shemitta. The commandment to give of our produce to the poor, as well as to the Kohanim and Levites, prevents us from relishing our possessions egotistically and encourages us to use our material resources to support the spiritual growth of our nation. All in all, this book addresses the question of how we can replace the fantastic illusion that we are the true masters of our physical environment with a humble, realistic perspective on our position in the universe.
At this point we observe a key transition in the Mishneh Torah, from a focus on individuals and families to a focus on the nation as a whole. Even if Adam and Eve had never reproduced, they would still have had to balance work, biological drives, agricultural development, etc., with spiritual growth. So the first seven books of the Mishneh Torah would have applied to them fully. Now, however, the Rambam shifts to address mitsvot and themes that are national in character and that are relevant to Jewish society as a whole.
8. SEFER AVODAH: THE BOOK OF DIVINE SERVICE
This book includes the laws related to the construction of the Holy Temple and the performance of the communal sacrifices. Sefer Avodah should be seen as the first installment of a new series. Sefer Avodah is, in a sense, the symbolic counterpart to Sefer Hamada. The ideas in Sefer Hamada comprise the intellectual foundation for all of our spiritual growth. What the Bet Hamikdash does is translate these profound concepts into symbolic and metaphoric terms that are universally accessible to human beings at all levels. The Temple structure, its Kohanim and its services provide a symbolic picture of Jewish philosophy and ethics as outlined in Sefer Hamada. The Torah recognizes that our individual levels of knowledge and perfection all differ, and that each person’s process of spiritual growth is unique, private and constantly in flux. By contrast, national service of G-d must take place in the public arena, and thus be concrete, formal, measurable and consistent.
In reality, all societies must have their “Sefer Hamada” and their “Sefer Avodah”. At the core of our culture is a set of beliefs, values and ideals that consciously or unconsciously guide our thought and behavior. Our schools and universities transmit these beliefs and values directly to children via the lessons they teach. However, the communication of our cultural ideals in the abstract has a limited impact on our citizens. What the vast majority of people are inspired by is the experience of seeing the embodiment of these values “in the flesh”. As an example, let us consider the tremendous significance our society attaches to wealth, glamour and fame. It is one thing to speak about our striving for the “American Dream” in the abstract; it is quite another thing to watch the Academy Awards on television, where we are given the opportunity to ogle living examples of the “good life” that are showcased before our very eyes. Movies and Awards Shows are powerful sources of inspiration for people because they renew their impetus to continue pursuing the American dream in the context of their own lives. Obviously, Torah values share little in common with the American dream, but the psychological mechanism adopted in Jewish society is the same – in the Bet Hamikdash, our “Hollywood”, we showcase concrete examples of the ideal state of human existence (knowledge of and devotion to Hashem) in order to inspire citizens to move closer to it.
9. SEFER KORBANOT: THE BOOK OF SACRIFICES
This book includes the laws that pertain to individual sacrifices. If Sefer Avodah is best understood through comparison to our fascination with celebrities, then Sefer Korbanot is best appreciated by drawing from our experience with “fan clubs.” These are forums that afford us the opportunity to participate in “stardom” at our own level, through establishing a feeling of personal identification and connection with the stars we worship. This desire to affiliate oneself with the Divine, most obviously displayed by “groupies”, often expresses itself in the form of “korbanot” of sorts, including fan mail and other outrageous behaviors that are performed with the hope of receiving some kind of positive response or approval from the recipients of the “worship.” In Jewish terms, individual korbanot are our reactions to Sefer Avodah. In Sefer Avodah we are presented with an ideal vision of Hashem’s providence, the creation, and the highest form of excellence in human conduct. Having witnessed this spectacle, it is incumbent upon us to take a step in the direction of those ideals; the offering of korbanot represents our constant striving toward the “stardom” personified by the kohanim – their knowledge of Hashem and imitation of His ways. We thereby seek our own “niche” within the communal service of G-d.
Wednesday, January 21, 2009
The Fourteen Books of the Mishneh Torah
In essence, the Fourteen Books of the Mishneh Torah represent fourteen areas of human existence to which Hashem’s wisdom must be rigorously applied in order for individuals and societies to enjoy true success and fulfillment. After listing the 613 commandments, the Rambam introduces the fourteen domains within which they will be grouped and organized. He gives us the title of each book and a brief synopsis of its theme, because the full force of its message can only be grasped after we see the mitsvot contained within it and how they are elucidated.
At this point, we will suffice ourselves with an overview of the basic thematic elements of each book. And for the sake of brevity and readability, I will divide the discussion of the books over two or three blog posts.
1. SEFER HAMADA: THE BOOK OF KNOWLEDGE
This book identifies and elaborates upon the core values or principles that we use to orient ourselves to the world and that help us define our own identities. It contains mitsvot that pertain to Hashem’s existence and Unity, the prohibitions against idol worship, etc.
2. SEFER AHAVA: THE BOOK OF LOVE
This book includes mitsvot designed to help us “love Hashem and remember Him always”, such as reading the Shema, prayer, tefillin, etc. In our lives, the most powerful experience of love is the love of family and friends. Building upon that analogy, these mitsvot are similar to the placement of family photos in our offices, or phone calls to loved ones that we make throughout the day, simply to “touch base”. We do these things to maintain a connection with the people we value most, even as the pressures of our workaday existence threaten to completely vanquish our attention and energy. In the case of the Book of Love, the beloved being is Hashem rather than another person. Everyday life causes us to lose sight of what is most important, we need to incorporate rituals into our routine that remind us, lest we become disconnected from our core values.
3. SEFER ZEMANIM: THE BOOK OF TIMES
This book includes laws that pertain to Shabbat, Holidays, Fast Days, etc. The main thing that interferes with our ability to grow as human beings is time. We are constantly subject to the demands of the physical world, the need to work and provide for ourselves and our families, etc. As a result, people always seek opportunities for leisure – that is, opportunities to immerse themselves in whatever activity they consider most valuable and desirable. The best example of this is the concept of a vacation – a period of time dedicated to immersion in our choice of pleasures; whether it is sightseeing, drinking, partying, gambling, etc. The essence of a vacation is the removal of the distraction of work in order to facilitate a total involvement with one’s favorite source of enjoyment. Similarly, holidays all have the prohibition of work in common – they all require us to step out of our daily routine and fully devote ourselves to spirituality and the pursuit of deeper understanding for a distinct period of time. Having pictures of a wife and children at the office is no substitute for spending evenings, weekends and holidays with them. In the same way, the periodic reminders of God that are legislated in the Book of Love are necessary for maintaining our connection to Him, but are no substitute for setting aside time to further develop that relationship. We need some quality time with our Beloved.
4. SEFER NASHIM: THE BOOK OF WOMEN
This book includes the mitsvot that pertain to marriage and divorce. Marriage is oftentimes approached from a selfish standpoint and is misconstrued as an institution designed to provide each partner with physical/emotional satisfaction, financial security, etc. This leads to unhealthy marital relationships for the following reason: Since each member of the couple is out for his or her own benefit, interactions between spouses end up consisting of a series of battles to gain control of the household and shape it in accordance with a particular personal agenda.
This is the meaning of the Midrash that states that the word for “man” in Hebrew (Ish) and the word for “woman” (Isha) each contain one letter of the Divine name (yud and heh, respectively). If you remove the letters yud and the heh, you are left with “fire” (Esh). The Rabbis teach us that when a marriage is based upon a common spiritual mission, when it is a partnership designed to realize a shared vision of truth and to transmit it to the next generation through raising children – simply, if Hashem is found in the marriage – then it will be a successful one. Spouses in such a relationship are not seeking to overpower one another for selfish ends. They are working together for a higher purpose.
On the other hand, once such a transcendent motivation is lost – once Hashem is taken out of the marriage – we are left with fire, a substance that consumes and destroys. The “raging flames” of unceasing battles for control and dominance will no doubt devour the household. This is why the Book of Women begins with a discussion of the sanctity of marriage – the Jewish union is not a fly-by-night relationship, it is consecrated to a holy objective and cannot be easily created or dissolved.
An obvious question that presents itself is why this book precedes the Book of Holiness, which deals with sexual prohibitions and forbidden foods. After all, from a chronological perspective, the laws of holiness come into effect sooner, as they apply to us even before marriage. We see from this another proof that the Rambam follows a conceptual, and not necessarily a practical or chronological order in the Mishneh Torah. The Torah deems a human being’s existence incomplete without companionship. We are social animals by nature; therefore, the complete “human entity” is a man and a woman united. The first three books of the Mishneh Torah address a person’s internal intellectual and spiritual development, a matter that is totally private and individualistic. In the fourth book, the Mishneh Torah begins to discuss the physical existence of human beings, something that they share. Once we look at the material side of humanity, we find ourselves dealing with partnerships, not individuals, for “it is not good for man to be alone.” As such, the book which focuses on the creation of the marriage relationship precedes the book that speaks of particular areas of biological function.
This discussion will be continued in the next installment with an examination of books 5-9....
Wednesday, January 07, 2009
We continue our examination of the introduction to the Mishneh Torah. After counting the 613 commandments, the Rambam proceeds to discuss the status of laws and practices that are not included in the 613 but the observance of which is nonetheless binding on the Jewish people. The Rambam notes that the comprehensiveness of the Mishneh Torah demands that it include the Rabbinic mitsvot and customs as well as Biblical laws. Rabbinic commandments, like their Biblical counterparts, require a great deal of elucidation and clarification, and the Rambam promises to provide this in his “textbook”.
At this point, the Rambam addresses the apparent contradiction between the prohibition of adding onto the Torah and the concept of Rabbinic commandments. If we are forbidden to formulate new commandments, how can the Rabbis enact new laws?
The Rambam introduces an important distinction to resolve this problem. He states that it all depends upon the way in which the Rabbinic institutions are presented to the people. Were the Prophets or Rabbis to claim that the laws they promulgate – such as the reading of the Megillah or washing hands before eating bread - have a Biblical source and that they had been revealed by G-d Himself, they would be guilty of violating the injunction against adding to the commandments of the Torah. However, since they honestly admit that these commandments are of Rabbinic origin and that the force of these laws derives from rabbinic authority alone, they are considered to be adding onto the mitsvot at all.
Finally, the Rambam concludes with a fascinating paragraph:
“…Rather, we say that the Prophets, together with the Court, instituted and commanded that the Megillah be read in its proper time – in order to make mention of the praises of the Holy One, Blessed is He, and the salvation he wrought for us, and the fact that He was near when we called out to Him – so that we should bless and thank Him, and in order to make known to future generations that the Torah was accurate when it promised that ‘what other great nation is there, to whom G-d is close, whenever we call out to Him.’ And along the same lines should we understand every Rabbinical commandment, whether it is positive or negative.”
Three fundamental difficulties must be addressed here:
First, why does the Rambam incorporate this discussion – i.e., the resolution of the apparent conflict between the creation of Rabbinic mitsvot and the prohibition of adding to the Torah - into his Introduction? Shouldn’t this kind of abstruse discussion be located somewhere else in the Mishneh Torah? (In fact, the Rambam revisits this issue in the Mishneh Torah when he addresses the authority of the Bet Din in the Book of Judges).
Second, it seems as if the Rambam is using doubletalk to resolve the contradiction he identifies. After all, what difference does it make whether the Rabbis characterize their commandments as Biblical or not; the fact is that they are increasing the number of laws that we are religiously required to observe, thereby adding onto the corpus of Torah legislation. The honesty and forthrightness of the Rabbis in presenting their commandments, although important, does not seem to be relevant to the question of whether they should be viewed as adding to the Torah or not.
Lastly, the Rambam’s final description of the reason for “All Rabbinical commandments, whether positive or negative”, doesn’t seem to be correct. Clearly, not all of the rabbinic laws are related to the idea that G-d responds to us in times of trouble. Laws like the requirement to wash our hands before consuming bread, or make an eruv tavshilin before a holiday, have nothing at all to do with G-d’s providential intercession on our behalf throughout history.
In order to resolve these problems, we must revisit and reflect upon an essential aspect of the Rambam's approach to mitsvot in general. One of the key messages that the Rambam is trying to convey to the readership of the Mishneh Torah is that the mitsvot are meant to be understood in the context of a principle-based conceptual framework and not in superficial or purely concrete terms. This requires looking beyond the practical implications and sensible manifestations of halakhic thought that preoccupy most Jews and considering the abstract structure that is accessible to the mind's eye alone.
Just as the Rambam felt compelled to formulate the lines of demarcation between individual commandments among the 613 in order to preserve the conceptual clarity of the mitsvah system, so too must he emphasize that there is a fundamental difference between rabbinical and biblical mitsvot – the rabbinical mitsvot are not components of the 613 at all, and must not be confused with them. Although they add more material to our religious lives, rabbinical injunctions and commandments are not part of the conceptual structure of the Torah’s legislation – they must be understood separately from it.
Herein lies the Rambam’s unique approach to the problem of “adding on” to the Torah. In his view, this prohibition relates to the study and comprehension of the commandments, not to our practical observance of them. As long as the purity and clarity of the 613 mitsvot is preserved, the additional of countless rabbinical commandments will not impact it. Only when the rabbinical commandments are not clearly identified, and begin to confound and distort our picture of the biblical laws, does their existence become an issue. Provided that they are introduced as rabbinic legislation and are distinguished from the laws of the Torah, they do not come under the rubric of “addition” to Torah law.
(The issue of the Rambam's understanding of the prohibitions of adding to and subtracting from the Torah is an intriguing one that deserves its own post in the future. However, the discerning reader may discover that in the previous paragraph lies the roots of a more elaborate explanation of the Rambam's view and his disagreement with the position advocated by most other Rishonim; see his treatment of these subjects in Hilkhot Mamrim and the commentary of the Raavad for more details.)
The Rambam, however, did not want to leave us with the impression that Rabbinical legislation is promulgated in a vacuum and that, as long as they are honest, the Rabbis can arbitrarily generate as many new laws as they wish. This is why the Rambam makes reference to the “reason” for some of the rabbinic mitsvot. He wishes to illustrate and thus to emphasize that the rabbinic mitsvot are developed based upon Biblical themes that the Rabbis believe need to be underscored, expanded on, etc.
The Rambam exemplifies this with the case of the Rabbinic holidays, which are based upon the Biblical concept of recognizing G-d’s response to prayer in times of national distress. So too, Rambam states, with all of the Rabbinical legislation – it is rooted in the philosophical ideas and directives contained in the Torah itself. Put simply, Rabbinic mitsvot are based upon Biblical themes but are not themselves “Biblical.”
Tuesday, January 06, 2009
Organization of the Mishneh Torah
This post is a continuation of the ongoing series of introductory posts on the Mishneh Torah of the Rambam. It goes without saying that, in order to understand this installment, one should be familiar with those that preceded it. Unfortunately, the last post was published several months ago, but in reality most of the material is already prepared and, with a bit of dilligence, a more consistent pace of posting can be maintained from hereon in.
Rather than following the order of the Talmud or even his own list of mitsvot, the Rambam organized the Mishneh Torah conceptually or topically. He divided the entirety of the Oral Torah into fourteen books, each of which addresses a broad theme. Within each book are subdivisions or “Halakhot” that discuss component parts of the broad theme in question. Finally, each subdivision is further broken down into chapters and individual laws. A given subdivision may include any number of mitsvot, provided that those mitsvot tie into its specific motif.
By way of example, Rambam mentions that under the heading of “Laws of Idolatry”, which is included in the Book of Knowledge, he has categorized commandments related not only to the actual worship of idols but also to magic, superstition, shaving of the corners of the beard, etc., since all of these commandments are conceptually related to the subject of removing idolatry from our midst. Each one of these commandments, in its own right, targets a highly specific aspect of our attachment to the idolatrous worldview. However, the objective of eliminating idolatry is not an end in and of itself. Ultimately, the purpose of efforts to distance ourselves from materialism, primitivism and supersition is to replace such distorted notions with the true intellectual paradigm of the Torah – hence, the Laws of Idolatry form a part of the Book of Knowledge.
We see, then, that a mitzvah can be “explained” on a number of levels. We can discuss a mitzvah and its interpretation separately from any other commandment. For this, we simply need to know that it is one of the 613 commandments (ex., not shaving the corners of the beard), not a part of one or more than one, so we are sure that we are addressing a complete topic.
The second level is “explaining” the mitzvah in terms of a more general theme into which it fits (ex., the uprooting of idolatrous tendencies, the Laws of Idolatry), together with other mitsvot.
The third level is seeing how those themes are themselves only instruments that operate harmoniously toward the achievement of a grander objective (ex., the establishment of the knowledge-based worldview as the foundation of society, the Book of Knowledge).
Finally, the fourth level is perceiving how the book in question is really only one of the fourteen components of the overall system of Torah and Mitsvot which aims at demonstrating the unity of God's design throughout Creation and enabling mankind to live in accordance with the Divine plan. This overarching goal is articulated most clearly and elegantly in the crowning verses of the Mishneh Torah, which represent the purpose of the 14-Volume work as a whole and were elucidated in great detail in the first installment of this series.
An analogy to the design of the Mishneh Torah can be found in the area of physical wellness. Let us imagine that a doctor provided us with a set of orders encompassed all kinds of different activities: various exercises, specific foods to consume and to avoid, types of music to listen to, books to read, etc. If we wanted to organize this regimen into a “Mishneh Torah” of good living, we would need to analyze the prescribed activities on a variety of levels.
One level of understanding the orders would be grasping the meaning of each individual instruction in its own right. For example, we may examine a particular physical exercise and see that it is designed to increase muscle tone in our biceps (this is analogous to studying a specific mitzvah).
The second level would be seeing how this exercise, together with other routines and proper diet, fits into the broader category of “establishing and/or maintaining physical health” (this is analogous to viewing mitsvot from the vantage point of an “inyan”, or subject, like Laws of Idolatry).
The third level would be understanding how physical health combines with emotional health (which has its own subdivisions and “mitsvot”) to generate “wellness” in the holistic sense of the term (this is analogous to viewing mitsvot from the level of a “sefer” or book, like the Book of Knowledge).
The fourth and final level would be seeing how achieving and maintaining wellness is really only one of the many components of a satisfying human life. There also need to be routines that develop intellectual potential, social skills, etc. (This is analogous to viewing mitsvot from the perspective of the Mishneh Torah as a unified whole).
As we have seen in previous posts and can perceive even more clearly now, the purpose of Mishneh Torah is to explain the mitsvot, not simply catalogue the specific rules and regulations of Judaism. Therefore, before the Mishneh Torah can be understood, one must be able to identify the mitsvot clearly and accurately. Once this has been accomplished, the process of interpretation and classification at all four ‘levels’ can begin. The result of thorough understanding of the mitsvot will be consistent, meaningful and valid halachic practice.